Resilience in Nicaragua: Preliminary Factor Analysis and Validation of the CYRM-28
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subjective well-being

How to Cite

StumpfB. C., & ChangK. B. T. (2021). Resilience in Nicaragua: Preliminary Factor Analysis and Validation of the CYRM-28. International Journal of Child and Adolescent Resilience, 8(1), 135-145.


Objectives: The current study used factor analytic techniques to examine the performance of the Child and Youth Resilience Measure (CYRM-28) in Nicaragua.
Method: Nicaraguan youth from Managua, León, Chinandega, and Granada (n = 2,764) completed the CYRM-28 and the Personal Wellbeing Index (PWI-A). The CYRM-28 and PWI-A are self-report measures that were translated into Spanish in previous studies.
Results: A confirmatory factor analysis on the CYRM-28 did not support the eight-factor model from previous research. An exploratory factor analysis yielded a six-factor model: Social Belonging, Cultural Context, Caregiver Context, Social Skills, Spiritual Context, and Responsibility. Seven items were removed to improve model fit, reducing the CYRM-28 to only 21 items. We named this the CYRM-21-N (Nicaragua).
Conclusion: The CYRM-28 did not yield an eight-factor structure in our data from Nicaraguan youth.
Implications: From our analyses, we constructed the CYRM-21-N, a briefer version of the CYRM-28 with a revised factor structure. The CYRM-21-N may be useful in studying youth populations or assessing intervention outcomes in Nicaragua.
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