The Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect (CIS) research team is very pleased to include four papers in this inaugural issue of the International Journal of Child and Adolescent Resilience. Services provided to children, youth, and families from Child Protective Services or child welfare systems can range to address adult vulnerabilities (mental health problems, substance abuse), child needs for learning, health, and well-being needs, and context needs (housing supports). Ongoing service provision is one potential resilience vehicle via promoting child safety, family stability, and child permanency, when removed from family care. Each of the papers examines the decision to provide child welfare services at the conclusion of a maltreatment investigation. The four CIS analyses reveal important differences in the service decisions to four distinct populations identified by the CIS: (1) caregivers who are non-English/non-
French speaking; (2) infants; (3) youth with delinquency behaviours and/or involved in the youth criminal justice system; and, (4) children who have been exposed to intimate partner violence. The findings from the CIS highlight the importance of surveillance data as a type of research evidence that can be utilized to inform important policy and practice initiatives. The lives of the children, youth, and families documented in the CIS studies are complex, and it is the responsibility of researchers to document and understand these complexities so as to support children and families in a timely, effective and ethical manner.