Développer la résilience chez les jeunes trans et non binaires : un modèle basé sur l’éthique de la reconnaissance d’Axel Honneth
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Keywords

transgender, youth, oppression, resilience, transaffirmative, Honneth

How to Cite

Medico, D. (2021). Développer la résilience chez les jeunes trans et non binaires : un modèle basé sur l’éthique de la reconnaissance d’Axel Honneth. International Journal of Child and Adolescent Resilience (IJCAR), 8(1). Retrieved from https://ijcar-rirea.ca/index.php/ijcar-rirea/article/view/279

Abstract

Notre objectif est de participer à la fondation des bases théoriques et empiriques des approches transaffirmatives pour les jeunes trans et non binaires (JTNB). Nous proposons un modèle dont les bases théoriques s’ancrent dans l’éthique de la reconnaissance d’Axel Honneth et dont les moyens et les outils d’intervention sont développés à partir des écrits sur les facteurs de résilience chez cette population spécifique. La recherche de ces 10 dernières années a montré que les oppressions que les JTNB vivent tout au long de leur développement ont un impact délétère sur leur santé mentale. La question qui se pose aujourd’hui aux intervenant.e.x.s est donc comment favoriser la résilience ? Pour y répondre, nous proposons quatre niveaux d’intervention basés sur les niveaux de reconnaissance sociale d’Axel Honneth et les travaux sur l'intersubjectivité en psychologie : subjectif, intersubjectif, communautaire et légal. En fonction de ces niveaux, les approches transaffirmatives développent des interventions qui ont les objectifs de favoriser : 1) un sens de soi incarné et positif par la construction identitaire et le dépassement des séquelles de la transphobie; 2) la confiance en soi par des liens interpersonnels validants; 3) l’estime de soi par la fierté d’être trans et l’ancrage communautaire; 4) le respect de soi par la possibilité de vivre dans le genre désiré en sécurité et avec équité.

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Steensma, T. D., Kreukels, B. P., de Vries, A. L., & Cohen-Kettenis, P. T. (2013). Gender identity development in adolescence. Hormones and Behavior, 64(2), 288-297. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yhbeh.2013.02.020

Testa, R., Hendricks, M.L., Bradford, J. & Bongar, B. (2012). The relationship between gender-based victimization and suicide attempts in transgender people. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 43(5), 468-475, https://doi.org/10.1037/a0029605

Testa, R., Michaels, M.S., Bills, W., Rogers, M.L, Balsam, K.F. & Joiner, T. (2017). Suicidal ideation in transgender people: gender minority stress and interpersonal theory factors. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 126(1), 125-136, https://doi.org/10.1037/abn0000234

Timmins, L., Rimes, K. A., & Rahman, Q. (2017). Minority stressors and psychological distress in transgender individuals. Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity, 4(3), 328-340. https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1037/sgd0000237

Tompkins, A. B. (2014). «There's no chasing involved»: cis/trans relationships, «tranny chasers», and the future of a sex-positive trans politics. Journal of Homosexuality, 61(5), 766-780. https://doi.org/10.1080/00918369.2014.870448

Torres, C. G., Renfrew, M., Kenst, K., Tan-McGrory, A., Betancourt, J. R., & López, L. (2015) Improving transgender health by building safe clinical environments that promote existing resilience: Results from a qualitative analysis of providers. BMC pediatrics, 15(1), 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12887-015-0505-6

Tree-McGrath, C. A. F., Puckett, J. A., Reisner, S. L. & Pantalone, D. W. (2018). Sexuality and gender affirmation in transgender men who have sex with cisgender men. International Journal of Transgenderism, 19(4), 389-400. https://doi.org/10.1080/15532739.2018.1463584

Turban, J. L., Beckwith, N., Reisner, S. L., & Keuroghlian, A. S. (2020). Association Between Recalled Exposure to Gender Identity Conversion Efforts and Psychological Distress and Suicide Attempts Among Transgender Adults. JAMA psychiatry, 77(1), 68-76. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2019.2285

Twist, J., & de Graaf, N. M. (2019). Gender diversity and non-binary presentations in young people attending the United Kingdom’s National Gender Identity Development Service. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 24(2), 277–290. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1359104518804311

Veale, J. Peter, T., Travers, R., & Saewyc, E.M. (2017). Enacted stigma, mental health, and protective factors among transgender youth in Canada. Transgender Health, 2(1), 207-216. https://doi.org/10.1089/trdh.2017.0031

Watson, R. J., Veale, J. F., & Saewyc, E. M. (2017) Disordered eating behaviors among transgender youth: Probability profiles from risk and protective factors. The International Journal of Eating Disorders, 50(5), 515-522. https://doi.org/10.1002/eat.22627

Weinhardt, V.L, Xie, H., Wesp, L.M., Murray, J.R., Apchemengich, I., Kioko, D., Weinhardt C.B & Cook-Daniels, L. (2019) The Role of Family, Friend, and Significant Other Support in Well-Being Among Transgender and Non-Binary Youth. Journal of GLBT Family Studies, 15(4), 311-325, https://doi.org/10.1080/1550428X.2018.1522606

Wiepjes, C. M., Nota, N. M., de Blok, C. J. M., Klaver, M., de Vries, A. L. C., Wensing-Kruger, S. A., de Jongh, R. T., Bouman, M.-B., Steensma, T. D., Cohen-Kettenis, P., Gooren, L. J. G., Kreukels, B. P. C., & den Heijer, M. (2018). The Amsterdam Cohort of Gender Dysphoria Study (1972-2015): Trends in Prevalence, Treatment, and Regrets. The Journal of Sexual Medicine, 15(4), 582–590. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsxm.2018.01.016

Zeeman, L., Aranda, K., Sherriff, N., & Cocking, C. (2017). Promoting resilience and emotional well-being of transgender young people: Research at the intersections of gender and sexuality. Journal of Youth Studies, 20(3), 382-397, https://doi.org/10.1080/13676261.2016.1232481

Bibliographie résilience – recension des écrits, articles de synthèse et éditoriaux

Ehrensaft, E., Giammattei, S. V., Storck, K., Tishelman, A. C., & Keo-Meier, C. (2018). Prepubertal social gender transitions: What we know; what we can learn—A view from a gender affirmative lens. International Journal of Transgenderism, 19(2), 251-268. https://doi.org/10.1080/15532739.2017.1414649

Leibowitz, S., Green, J., Massey, R., Boleware, A. M., Ehrensaft, D., Francis, W., ... & T’Sjoen, G. (2020). Statement in response to calls for banning evidence-based supportive health interventions for transgender and gender diverse youth. International Journal of Transgender Health, 21(1), 111-112. https://doi.org/10.1080/15532739.2020.1703652

McNeil, J., Ellis, S. J., & Eccles, F. J. R. (2017). Suicide in trans populations: a systematic review of prevalence and correlates. Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity, 4(3), 341-353. https://doi.org/10.1037/sgd0000235

Medico, D. (2019) Genres, subjectivités et corps au-delà de la binarité. Filigrane, 28(1), 57-71. https://doi.org/10.7202/1064597ar

Medico, D. (2020). Quelques considérations critiques et cliniques sur le genre et ses dissident.e.s. In Analysis, 4(3), 374-382. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.inan.2020.10.006

Moolchaem, P., Liamputtong, P., O’Halloran, P., & Muhamad, R. (2015). The Lived Experiences of Transgender Persons: A Meta-Synthesis. Journal of Gay and Lesbian Social Services, 27(2), 143-171. https://doi.org/10.1080/10538720.2015.1021983

Moradi, B., Tebbe, E. A., Brewster, M. E., Budge, S. L., Lenzen, A., Ege, E., Schuch, E., Arango, S., Angelone, N., Mender, E., Hiner, D. L., Huscher, K., Painter, J., & Flores, M. J. (2016). A content analysis of literature on trans people and issues: 2002-2012. The Counseling Psychologist, 44(7), 960-995. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0011000015609044

Motmans, J., Nieder, T.O., & Bouman, W. P. (2019). Transforming the paradigm of nonbinary transgender health: A field in transition. International Journal of Transgenderism, 20(2-3), 119-125. https://doi.org/10.1080/15532739.2019.1640514

Olson, J., Forbes, C., & Belzer, M. (2011). Management of the transgender adolescent. Archives of pediatrics & adolescent medicine, 165(2), 171-176. https://doi-org/10.1001/archpediatrics.2010.275

Reisner, S. L., Poteat, T., Keatley, J., Cabral, M., Mothopeng, T., Dunham, E., Holland, C. E., Max, R., & Baral, S. D. (2016). Global health burden and needs of transgender populations: A review. The Lancet, 388(10042), 412-436. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(16)00684-X

Richards, C. (2020). Finitude et devenir trans. Racing the Reaper. Frontières, 31(2), https://doi.org/10.7202/1070336ar

Richards, C., Bouman, W. P., Seal, L., Barker, M. J., Nieder, T. O., & T’SJoen, G. (2016). Non-binary or genderqueer genders. International Review of Psychiatry, 28 (1), 95-102. https://doi.org/10.3109/09540261.2015.1106446

Spivey, L. A., & Edwards-Leeper, L. (2019). Future Directions in Affirmative Psychological Interventions with Transgender Children and Adolescents. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 48(2), 343–356. https://doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2018.1534207

Stephenson, R., Riley, E., Rogers, E., Suarez, N., Metheny, N., Senda, J, Saylor, K. M., & Bauermeister, J. A. (2017). The sexual health of transgender men: a scoping review. The Journal of Sex Research, 54(4-5), 424-445. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224499.2016.1271863

Stewart, L., O'Halloran, P., & Oates, J. (2018). Investigating the social integration and wellbeing of transgender individuals: A meta-synthesis. International Journal of Transgenderism, 19(1), 46-58. https://doi.org/10.1080/15532739.2017.1364199

Tankersley, A.P., Grafsky, E.L., Dike, J. et Russel, T. J. (2021). Risk and resilience factors for mental health among transgender and gender nonconforming (TGNC) youth: a systematic review. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10567-021-00344-6

The Lancet (2018). Gender-affirming care needed for transgender children. The Lancet, 391(10140), 2576. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(18)31429-6

Turban, J. L., & Ehrensaft, D. (2018). Research Review: Gender identity in youth: treatment paradigms and controversies. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 59(12), 1228–1243. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12833

Watson, R. J., & Veale, J. (2018). Transgender youth are strong: Resilience among gender expansive youth worldwide. International Journal of Transgenderism, 19(2), 115-118. https://doi.org/10.1080/15532739.2018.1474832

White Hughto, J. M., Reisner, S. L., & Pachankis, J. E. (2015). Transgender stigma and health: A critical review of stigma determinants, mechanisms, and interventions. Social Science & Medicine, 147, 222-231. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2015.11.010

Bibliographie résilience sans arbitrage : ouvrages, chapitres et rapports de recherche

Abdellahi, É., & Thibeault, Ch.-A. (2021). La thérapie par les arts: un outil inspirant pour accompagner les jeunes. Dans A. Pullen Sansfaçon & D. Medico (dir.). Les interventions affirmatives auprès des jeunes trans et de leur famille (pp. 306-322). Éditions Remue-Ménage.

Beemyn, G., & Rankin, S. (2011). The lives of transgender people. Columbia University Press.

Ehrensaft, D. (2011). Gender Born, Gender Made: Raising Healthy Gender-Nonconforming Children. Workman Publishing.

Espineira, K. (2021). La médiatisation des « enfants & ados trans » : des écrans télé aux chaînes YouTube, se raconter et s’affirmer au présent. Dans A. Pullen Sansfaçon & D. Medico (dir.). Les interventions affirmatives auprès des jeunes trans et de leur famille (pp. 62-77). Éditions Remue-Ménage.

Faddoul, M. & Baril, A. (2021) Travail social et interventions transaffirmatives auprès des jeunes. Dans A. Pullen Sansfaçon & D. Medico (dir.). Les interventions affirmatives auprès des jeunes trans et de leur famille (pp. 159-176). Éditions Remue-Ménage.

Frappier, A.A (2021) Parents en transition. Dans A. Pullen Sansfaçon & D. Medico (dir.). Les interventions affirmatives auprès des jeunes trans et de leur famille (pp. 233-249). Éditions Remue-Ménage.

Girard, G., Medico, D. et Galantino, G. (2021) Santé sexuelle, vie sexuelle et amoureuse des adolescent.e.s. Dans A. Pullen Sansfaçon & D. Medico (dir.). Les interventions affirmatives auprès des jeunes trans et de leur famille (pp. 212-233). Éditions Remue-Ménage.

Pullen Sansfaçon, A., & Medico. D. (2021) Introduction : pour une approche transaffirmative. Dans A. Pullen Sansfaçon & D. Medico (dir.). Les interventions affirmatives auprès des jeunes trans et de leur famille (pp. 11-40). Éditions Remue-Ménage.

Riggs, D. (2019). Working with Transgender Young People and their Families: A Critical Developmental Approach. Palgrave.

Robichaud, M. J., Kirichenko, V., & Pullen Sansfaçon, A. (2021). Intervention en contexte d’autorité et de protection de la jeunesse. Dans A. Pullen Sansfaçon & D. Medico (dir.). Les interventions affirmatives auprès des jeunes trans et de leur famille (pp. 177-193). Éditions Remue-Ménage.

Sauvé, J.-S., & Pullen Sansfaçon, A., (2021). L'affirmation de l'identité des personnes mineures transgenre: une zone de turbulence éthico-juridique. Dans A. Pullen Sansfaçon & D. Medico (dir.). Les interventions affirmatives auprès des jeunes trans et de leur famille (pp. 103-119). Éditions Remue-Ménage.

Susset, F. et Rabiau, M. (2021a). Le soutien psychothérapeutiques des enfants créatif.ve.s dans leur genre, trans et non binaires. Dans A. Pullen Sansfaçon & D. Medico (dir.). Les interventions affirmatives auprès des jeunes trans et de leur famille (pp. 267-286). Éditions Remue-Ménage.

Susset, F., & Rabiau, M. (2021b). L’accompagnement thérapeutiques des adolescent.e.s en transition. Dans A. Pullen Sansfaçon & D. Medico (dir.). Les interventions affirmatives auprès des jeunes trans et de leur famille (pp. 287-305). Éditions Remue-Ménage.

Taylor, A. B., Chan, A., Hall, S. L., Pullen Sansfaçon, A., Saewyc, E. M., & l’équipe de recherche de l’enquête canadienne sur la santé des jeunes trans (2020). Être en sécurité, être soi-même 2019 : Résultats de l’enquête canadienne sur la santé des jeunes trans et non-binaires. Stigma and Resilience Among Vulnerable Youth Centre, University of British Colombia.

https://apsc-saravyc.sites.olt.ubc.ca/files/2020/03/Etre-en-Securite-Etre-Soi-Meme-2019_SARAVYC_FR.pdf

Travers, R., Bauer, G., Pyne, J., Bradley, K., Gale, L., & Papadimitriou, M. (2012). Impacts of Strong Parental Support for Trans Youth: A Report Prepared for Children’s Aid Society of Toronto and Delisle Youth Services. http://transpulseproject.ca.

Wahlen, R. (2021). Enjeux médicoéthiques posés aux médecins lors de la prescription de traitements d’affirmation de genre à des jeunes trans et non binaires. Dans A. Pullen Sansfaçon & D. Medico (dir.). Les interventions affirmatives auprès des jeunes trans et de leur famille (pp. 340-360). Éditions Remue-Ménage.

Zufferey, A., & Pullen Sansfaçon, A. (2021). Approches de groupe en méthodologie autogérée entre parents d’enfants trans. Dans A. Pullen Sansfaçon & D. Medico (dir.). Les interventions affirmatives auprès des jeunes trans et de leur famille (pp. 250-263). Éditions Remue-Ménage.

Ybarra, M. L., Mitchell, K. J., & Kosciw, J. (2015) The relation between suicidal ideation and bullying victimization in a national sample of transgender and non-transgender adolescents. Dans P. Goldblum, D.L. Espelage, J. Chu & B. Bongar (dir.), Youth suicide and bullying: Challenges and strategies for prevention and intervention (pp. 134-145). Oxford University Press.